The Best and Worst Models of Faithful and Atheist Women In The Light of The Holy Qur'an
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The Best and Worst Models of Faithful and Atheist Women In The Light of The Holy Qur'an

Asmaa Younıs

1Assist. Prof., Faculty of Theology, Department of Origins İnterpretation and Qur’anic Sciences. Atatürk University, Turkey

Abstract: Women have been mentioned in the Holy Qur’an in many places, and some of them were singled out by mentioning their stories or their names, but there is no woman whose name is explicitly mentioned in the Qur’an except for Maryam. The Quranic miraculous concise style is limited to mentioning the closest method to defining the desired person and the most specific to his identity, according to the requirements of the status and context. The Holy Qur’an came by citing many examples and models of women. From this standpoint, this study dealt with talking about the proverbs in the Qur’an which have a special rhetoric that can realize only by those who know the secrets of the Arabic language. The wisdom of setting proverbs in the Quran is to ease the understanding, the realization and the access to it; so that no one will have an argument on the Day of Resurrection, as all the rational, cosmic and literary evidence points with one breath to "la ilah illa allah" (there is no god but Allah). This study is based on explaining the concept of the proverb as in language and as an idiom, as well as explaining the sections of the proverb, the proverb is divided into two parts: the explicit proverb and the latent proverb, and this study dealt with the types of proverbs in the Holy Qur’an such as the symbolic, anecdotal, and natural proverbs, and this study also clarified the benefits of proverbs in the Qur’an which one of the most important of them was that proverbs have more effect than abstract words, because they bring the image closer, attract attention, subjects the illusion for the mind, and lift the veil from unaware hearts and compose what is needed and bring it closer, and this study is concluded with the most important four models of women - two examples of the bad people and two examples of the believers through Surat Al-Haram, Allah has set two wonderful and clear examples, of the unbelievers and the people of faith, to show the status of the unbelievers by the represent that they are punished for their disbelief and enmity to the believers by punishing people like them without regard for lineage, marital, kinship, or favoritism, so the wife of Noah and Lot's wife been punished even though they were in the house of prophet-hood, but they disbelieved in Allah and the Prophet, so the marital bond did not save them from the punishment of Allah, and Allah sat an example for a Muslim woman who marries an unbeliever, her husband’s disbelief does not harm her along with her conversion to Islam, this wonderful example of the believers came to indicate that it is their duty to be in such sincerity, honest determination and strength of certainty as these two believers: Aasiya the wife of Pharaoh and Maryam the daughter of Imran.

Keywords: Parable, proverbs, symbolic representation, storytelling, natural representation, the four women.

INTRODUCTION

The Holy Quran is the book of legislation, education, guidance, and reform. Allah (almighty) gives it for us as a complete and clear approach to our lives, it solves all the problems and dissolves all the difficulties, so one of the most prominent aspects that Quran take care about is proverbs that give us the most effective instructions to create an Islamic personality, and protect it from the destructive and semi-fake factors. Knowing the Qur'anic proverbs is very important, and they must be sufficient for the hardworking scientist and observed reader.

In this article, the researcher talked about the meaning of proverbs in the Holy Qur'an, sections, and benefits, as well as presented an important example about four women who mentioned in the Holy Quran as a model of faith and atheism, because the Holy Qur'an uses proverbs as a means to get benefits and lessons from them, such as directing preachers and educators to follow the Qur'an's way of preaching for the right way and spreading the truth. The Holy Qur'an is enough as a unique method and guide.

SMOOTHING:

1 .First: The definition of (Parable) in language:

 Parable is:  the sense of the likeness, it is said: this is the same thing and like it (al-Razi ,1999: p. 290 , Al-Hanafi ,1996 : p.1449). as it is said: semi-thing and likeness) ( Allah said: :" مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْلِياءَ كَمَثَلِ الْعَنْكَبُوتِ اتَّخَذَتْ بَيْتاً" [Surat Al-Ankaboot: 41] i.e. the similarity between Atheist and spider in weakness. Allah also said: " مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ حُمِّلُوا التَّوْراةَ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَحْمِلُوها كَمَثَلِ الْحِمارِ يَحْمِلُ أَسْفاراً " .[Surat Al-Jumu'a: 5] i.e., they were like donkeys both cannot benefit from them. The Parable is the lesson, as Allah says: "فَجَعَلْناهُمْ سَلَفاً وَمَثَلًا لِلْآخِرِين" [Al-Zokhrof:56] i.e., a lesson for those who came after them. And he said:" وَجَعَلْناهُ مَثَلًا لِبَنِي إِسْرائِيلَ " [Al-Zokhrof: 59] i.e. a lesson.

The parable is the image and description, " مَثَلُ الْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ فِيها أَنْهارٌ" [Surat Muhammad:15] I.e. the description of paradise. (ibn al-Arabi 1986 : p. 474 , al-Farahidi : p. 228).

Al-Zamkhshary says parables in origin mean the equivalent. We also say parable, like, Instance. Then he said and borrowed the adverb, adjective, or story if it had an affair ( Zarkshi ,1975: p490, Hijazi ,1413: p.707).

2. Second: The Parable In Term:

a group of oracle that displays a clear, well-known pattern of cosmic, historical objects or accidents in a remarkable display, to resembled or compared to human behavior, abstract idea, or any meaning, to clarify, convincing, proof, influencing, following it, alienating or being away from it, To explain the difference between two contradictory things to take one and stay away from the other or to prove the validity of one of them, and to nullify the other (al-Nahlawi ,2010 : p. 19).

Ibrahim al-Nazam said: "In the parable, there are four things that meet only in it: the brevity of the word, the correct meaning, the good analogy, and the quality of the metaphor, which is the ultimate of the rhetoric.( Al-Nawiri,1423:p.2, Khafaji and Abdullah Abdul Jabbar: p 261)

3.  Third: What’s the meaning of proverbial:

The word "hit" is used a lot  in the language, Al-Ragheb Al-Esfahani gathered most of these uses and  explained why they differed  in their interpretations, as he said: "Beating is putting something on something, and there are different  interpretations for the meaning of hit :

  1. Like hitting anything by hand, stick, sword, and so on, hitting the ground with rain, and hitting the dirhams. And beating the ground, going there on foot. And struck the camel stallion like a hammer, as say the strike is similar to hit with a hammer, hitting the tent by hitting its pegs with a hammer. The milk whisk, the proverb from the struck of dirhams is mentioning the effect that appears in others. ( Isfahani y , 1412 p . 294, 295).

  2. The parable is used to emphasize and description, Allah said:" ضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا " [Surat An-Nahl: 75] and said: " "فَلا تَضْرِبُوا لِلَّهِ الْأَمْثال [Surat An-Nahl: 74], i.e.: don't describe him as other attributes and don't make him like anything. (al-Dinouri , p270).

1. The proverbial has four main meanings:

First: give the example and show it for the interlocutors to infer their thoughts as they understand in their view. It is taken from the Install the tent. i.e., setting up. This meaning is closest to proverbs, evidence, and arguments for consideration or inference. (Qatamesh, 2018: p. 12).

Second: appreciation:

Ibn Taymiyyah - May God rest his soul – said: “The origin of them [on which it is measured] is the likeness. The analogy is the example, and its origin - Allah knows – is the appreciation, so proverbial of something is appreciation, and the measurement is based on the appreciation of the thing . (ibn Taymiyyah,1404: p .203).

This origin is valid for the example of Ibn Taymiyyah-may God rest his soul- to use it with all kinds of proverbs. The origin of the proverb is the appreciation of meaning, or wisdom, argument, lessons and examples in the words of the proverbs . (al-Jarboua , 2003: p.90).

Third: to set proverbs:

In the sense of saying, releasing and representing it in cases that resemble the first case. It is attached to the common proverbs, and it is taken from the general meaning of beating: putting something on something, the exact proverb is set to the appropriate state where the similarity is between them.

Fourth: to set proverb in the sense of hitting words.

Ibn Taymiyyah said: "The proverb is a combination of two sciences is asked by a third science, which is like the bull fertility the way the boy is born, and therefore they divide the result of it either fetus or sterile, as the beating of the stallion of the female is divided into a sterile product, and this type is taken from the beating of the stallion, which related to the standard and simile proverbs . . (al-Jarboua , 2003: p.90).

1.1.The first section

Sections and types of proverbs

Proverbs are divided into two parts: (Al- Suyuti, 1974: p.46/48).

The explicit proverb: It is apparent and authorized, such as the Almighty said:" مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي اسْتَوْقَدَ نَارًا فَلَمَّا أَضَاءَتْ مَا حَوْلَهُ ذَهَبَ اللَّهُ بِنُورِهِمْ وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ لَا يُبْصِرُونَ" [Surat Al-Bakara:17] this example doesn’t need any proof the meaning is very clear.

The Indirect proverb: it is not mentioned directly in the text the word example, we consider it as Proverb, as to say: "أَفَمَنْ أَسَّسَ بُنْيَانَهُ عَلَى تَقْوَى مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانٍ خَيْرٌ أَمْ مَنْ أَسَّسَ بُنْيَانَهُ عَلَى شَفَا جُرُفٍ هَارٍ فَانْهَارَ بِهِ فِي نَار جَهَنَّمَ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ" [Surat Al–Tawba: 109] Here the example is taken from the hidden text and its implications . (Al- Suyuti, 1974: p.46/48).

2. THE SECOND SECTION

Types of Proverbs

Proverbs are three types : (Zarkshi 1975: p493)

The first type: symbolic representation: like what it comes on the tongue of birds, animals and plants, such as the story of the ant with Solomon - peace be upon him -, and the story of Adam - peace be upon him - with the devil, they are symbols of divine facts.

The second type: storytelling: which came to show the conditions of nations and their stories to take the teachings and morals from them. As Allah said:" ضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا امْرَأَتَ نُوحٍ وَامْرَأَتَ لُوطٍ كَانَتَا تَحْتَ عَبْدَيْنِ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا صَالِحَيْنِ فَخَانَتَاهُمَا فَلَمْ يُغْنِيَا عَنْهُمَا مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئًا وَقِيلَ ادْخُلَا النَّارَ مَعَ الدَّاخِلِين" [Surat At-Tahrim:10] This type is the purpose of this research and study.

The third type: Natural representation: a metaphor of mental things with real materials, and its mostly used with formative matters. As Allah says:" إِنَّمَا مَثَلُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا كَمَاءٍ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فَاخْتَلَطَ بِهِ نَبَاتُ الْأَرْضِ مِمَّا يَأْكُلُ النَّاسُ وَالْأَنْعَامُ حَتَّى إِذَا أَخَذَتِ الْأَرْضُ زُخْرُفَهَا وَازَّيَّنَتْ وَظَنَّ أَهْلُهَا أَنَّهُمْ قَادِرُونَ عَلَيْهَا أَتَاهَا أَمْرُنَا لَيْلًا أَوْ نَهَارًا فَجَعَلْنَاهَا حَصِيدًا كَأَنْ لَمْ تَغْنَ بِالْأَمْسِ كَذَلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ [Surat Yunis:24].

We note from the sections and types, how the Quran give explicit and non-explicit proverbs. In many ways and methods such as: symbolic, anecdotal, and natural, as if it says to people, I showed you the right, and reject falsehood and brought you the path of guidance, and made it crystal clear, So that there is no argument for anyone to not know the difference between monotheism and polytheism, obedience and sin, and goodness and evil.

3. The Third Section:

The Benefits of Proverbs:

There are a lot of benefits and advantages of proverbs for those who care about its semantics. Proverbs take into consideration many aspects regarding the side it related to. Proverbs affect people more than the mere words because they make the image more clear, attract attention, flash the illusion of the mind, uncovered the oblivious hearts and convey the wanted meaning. (Al-Maidany, 219: p 61)

Imam Abdul Qaher says Jurjani ( Imam of rhetoric and miracles) - God's mercy -: “Know that it is agreed that the wise if the representation came in meanings or highlighted briefly in the text, transferred from the original images into beautiful image and give them the merit, raise their dignity, set their fire, double their powers in touching souls and hearts, evoke the joy from deep heart feelings and ceremony, and force the features to give their love and passion”. If the aim of using proverbs is:

Criticizing: it's hurt harder, impact harsh, its effect more severe, and its punishment is the worst.

Evidence: the proof is stronger, his authority is oppressive, and Its statement is approved.

Pride: the virtue lasts longer, its honor is the best, and the tongue is bitter.

Apology: it is closer to be accepted, more effective for hearts, and brings a good return.

Preaching: it heals the chest, attracts the thought, and inform in the alert and warning, and it is worthy to evacuate aim and reach the target and justify the sick-heart one and heal the heart. (Abd al-Qahir al-Jarjani,1991: p 101-102).

The greatest benefit of proverbs mentioned in the Holy Quran, Allah says:" وَتِلْكَ الْأَمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ وَمَا يَعْقِلُهَا إِلَّا الْعَالِمُونَ" [Surat Al-Ankabout :43] . This verse is a sign that proverbs are evidences of the wanted meaning , which is the property of well understanding and realizing the real meaning of them. And to be understood by the pure scholars and great faithful people and as ibn Kabir mentioned about Amr ibn al-As, May God bless him, he said, "I have learned a thousand examples from the Messenger of Allah (PBUH)" (ibn Hanbal ,1969: p203)

Then, he -God bless him- commented on this story: ( Ibn Katheer,1419: p.253).

This is a great feature for Amr ibn al-Ass -may God bless him-. Allah Almighty says: "وَتِلْكَ الْأَمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ وَمَا يَعْقِلُهَا إِلَّا الْعَالِمُونَ". It is a sign of God's mercy and love, and his support for his servants by giving examples with proverbs for them, he is the Superior and Transcendent, but he give proverbs to make the understanding and awareness of the meaning easier and felicitate reaching the best understanding so that no one argues of the Day of Resurrection, all the mental, cosmic and literary pieces of evidence indicate the same one, no god but Allah the only one.

4.The Fourth Section: Four Women Mentioned In The Holy Qur'an As A Model Of Faith And Atheism.

Preview:

Allah shows two great examples for us about the atheist people and the faithful people. Allah shows the status of disbelievers by representing the punishment for their atheism and hostility against the believers by punishing them like the previous ones without any single sense of bias for any reason: marital, kinship or favoritism. For example; Noh and Lott's wives even have existed in the prophets’ house but the marital bond did not prevent the torment of Allah upon them. Allah says:" وَضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا" which means Muslim woman who married to infidel husband and his disbelieving didn’t harm or affected her faith, and this wonderful example came to indicate that the believers must be faithful, sincere and have the power of certainty. As these two believers: Pharaoh’s wife Asia and Mariam the Virgin, the daughter of Imran, not the infidels who betrayed their husbands and nothing prevents the torment of Allah upon them. (al-Zuhaili', 1418 :p.28/323).

4.1. the parable of the two wives who mentioned in the Holy Qur'an as an example for atheism.

In his Holy Book, Allah said:" ضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا امْرَأَتَ نُوحٍ وَامْرَأَتَ لُوطٍ كَانَتَا تَحْتَ عَبْدَيْنِ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا صَالِحَيْنِ فَخَانَتَاهُمَا فَلَمْ يُغْنِيَا عَنْهُمَا مِنَ للَّهِ شَيْئًا وَقِيلَ ادْخُلَا النَّارَ مَعَ الدَّاخِلِينَ" [Surat Al-Tahreem:10].

The verse: "ضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا" means: God described the likeness about the infidels of Mecca, who mocked and said: The Muhammad -peace be upon him- will intercede for us. God showed that the prophet’s intercession - peace be upon him - did not benefit the infidels of Mecca, nor does the intercession of Noah for his wife or Lot's intercession to his wife. That is to say: For those who disbelieve, Noah had a woman, her name was Wa’la. Also, Lott had a wife her name was Dahla. (Al-Samarqandi, p471).

The interpreters such as Moqatel Ben Suleiman said: This proverb includes the intimidation of Aisha and Hafsa that if they angered their Lord then the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- won’t intercede for any of them. (Moqatel Ibn Sulaiman ,1423 : p. 379).

It also mentioned in the interpretation of the verse: that the woman of Noah and the woman of Lott -peace be upon them- wherein the marriage infallibility of prophets and messengers, and accompanied by day and night, eat and cohabit extremely together, but they had betrayed them in faith and religion, and did not believe them, nor believe the message of them, So being a wife for Noah or Lot didn’t benefit them, did not prevent nighter the punishment from Allah or feared upon them, nor defend it. Both wives deserve the worst torment and punishment (al-Zuhaili', 1418 :p.28/323).

Then he said: "كانَتا تَحْتَ عَبْدَيْنِ مِنْ عِبادنا صالِحَيْنِ" which means: Noah and Lott. What is meant here that: even they had been wives of these two prophets, and under their protection and maintenance, and the most adherent to them. (Tantawi , 1997: p. 481).

The metaphor instead of mentioning the names by saying: "عَبْدَيْنِ مِنْ عِبادِنا", for adding the honor from Allah (HisAlmighty) for the prophets.( Ibn Hayyan ,1420: p. 215).

And the benefit of saying from our worshipers in the verse: that the reason of representation is the existence of goodness in man whoever he was, and by this goodness wins and gets what Allah promise to give for his sincere worshipers, Without disparity between them but only the goodness alone manifestation and showing it, because just the goodness is the measure between the worshipers. ( Zamakhshari , 1407 : p.571).

Al-Matredi said in his interpretation: (it is permissible that this example of the place of infidels who had a sanctity kinship relationship with the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him -, were coveted to have an intercession in the Hereafter. If the matter like what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to them because they knew him with his kind compassion and mercy for all creation, how should he let them without his intercession and blessing while they are about to reluctant to perish ?!

He shows them the status of the woman of Noah and the woman of Lot and the relation between them and Noah and Lot - peace be upon them- to warn Prophet kinsmen to not depend on the Prophet-peace be upon him-. This may be at the beginning of Islamic age, at the time when the fathers enter to Islam without their sons, and the sons without their fathers; so this speech was for those who had believed in Allah and perpetuated on it, did not follow their fathers and their sons, he says: It does not benefit those who disbelieve in Islam the ones who enter Islam, Even they have paternity or brotherhood relations with them; because the human mercy and compassion for his wife more than his compassion on those relations that mentioned above, as well as communication, if it does not benefit them that being wives for Muslim husbands, so does not benefit the infidel ones from their Muslim parents and sons).

This proverb may be for the hypocrite people while they are showing the consent of the believers, and hide the dispute to them, he tells that it is bad for them pretending to be consent in Islam but in fact, they are not. and the wives of Noah and Lot - peace be upon them - who show their consent to their husbands otherwise they were not in secret, Allah only knows). (Matridi ,2005: p.95).

The saying: "فَخانَتاهُما" means: religious treason not sexual but a religious or belief betrayal. ( Al-Zagag, 1998: p. 195).

Al-Saddi said: The betrayal was in their disbelief, Al-Dahhek said: their gossiping, and Ibn Al-Sa'ib said: their hypocrisy. (Aljawzy ,1422 : p.311).

It was narrated that Ibn Abbas said: (Al-Tabari ,2000 : P.498).

A Prophet woman never ever committed a sexual betrayal, Only was a religious betrayal. As for Noah's woman, she was telling people that he was insane. And the woman of Lot was leading the people to his guests, by setting fire at night and blowing the smoke by day on them (Ibn Attiyah .1983: P. 335).. Ikrima said ( Al-Tabari, 2000 : P .498).

: "Their betrayal was being polytheists. the verse said: "فَلَمْ يُغْنِيا عَنْهُما مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئاً ", It means: the goodness of their husbands did not prevent the torment of Allah upon them. And it was said to them in the Hereafter: "ادْخُلَا النَّارَ مَعَ الدَّاخِلِينَ", that’s mean the infidels of Mecca.

If they are relatives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), the goodness of the Prophet (peace be upon him) does not benefit them. As well as his wives if they have disagreed with him. ( Ibn Sulaiman, 1453 : P.373).

This is the representation of their condition in inflicting the punishment because of their disbelief without any courtesy or favoritism by the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the believers in proportions or otherwise. It was also said in the interpretation of the verse: "فَلَمْ يُغْنِيا عَنْهُما مع توبتهما مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئاً وَقِيلَ ادْخُلَا النَّارَ مَعَ الدَّاخِلِينَ " It was said to scare Aisha and Hafsa (may Allah pleased them). (al-Thalabi , 2002 : P .351)

Al-Zamakhshari said in the interpretation of the previous verse :( That God Almighty represented the case of infidels - in that they will be punished for their disbelief and enmity for the believers and their punishment will be without any bias nor favoritism, Moreover, it does not benefit any relationship between them and any believer that had a kinship or blood link, with their enmity for believers; because their enmity to them and disbelieve in Allah and his Messenger cut off all the links and relations, and made them like foreigners and farther. Even if the believer who the infidel was relating to him, was one of Allah's prophets - As in the case of Noah's wife and Lot's wife: When they betrayed the two prophets, and both of the prophets did not prevent the torment of Allah upon their wives despite the Marriage and deep connection between them. They were told when they died or on the Day of Judgment: Enter the hell with other entrants who have no relations with the prophets, or other disbelievers from the nation of Noah and Lot.( Alnasfi ,1998: P.508).

Al-Sha’rawy said in the interpretation of the verse: Noah and Lot (peace be upon him) could not persuade their wives to worship Allah, so everyone has freedom of belief and choice. ( Al-Sha'raw I , 1997 : P.2179)

Al-Razi said: (Al-Razi , 1420: P.54).) (The parable of Noah's woman, and Lot's woman, includes multiple benefits that are not fully known by anyone except Allah his Almighty, including alerting men and women to great reward and painful torment. To sum up: know that the piety of others does not benefit the spoiler, and the corruption of others does not harm the good ones. Besides: Even though the man is a good believer, he does not secure the woman, nor himself, as in the case of Noah and Lot wives ).

Imam Ibn al-Qayyim said in Aa’lam Al-Mowaq’en: (This verse included an example about unbelievers, this example included that the infidel is punished because of their infidelity and enmity to Allah and His Messenger and his allies. And it doesn’t benefit him any relation with the believers even the lineage relation, son-in-law, or other connections. All the reasons and relations are interrupted on the Day of Resurrection, except what was connected to Allah alone by the messengers' hands, if the link of kinship and affinity or marriage, with lack of faith, would benefit the link between Noah and Lot and their women. When they not secured form the torment of Allah it was said enter the fire with those who enter before you. The verse cuts off the covetousness of those who choose the disobedience of Allah and ignore the obligations of Allah. No one a relative or a foreign could benefit anyone regardless of their relationship. There is no connection above the connection of A son., fatherhood, and marriage, Nor Noah for his son, Abraham for his father, or Noah and Lot for their wives could be intercessors for them from Allah torment. Allah said: " لَنْ تَنْفَعَكُمْ أَرْحامُكُمْ وَلا أَوْلادُكُمْ، يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَكُم" [Surat Al-Mumtahinah: 3], and the Almighty said:" يَوْمَ لا تَمْلِكُ نَفْسٌ لِنَفْسٍ شَيْئاً "[Surat Al-Enfetar: 19], and the Almighty said: "وَاتَّقُوا يَوْماً لا تَجْزِي نَفْسٌ عَنْ نَفْسٍ شَيْئاً" [Surat Al-Baqarah: 48 & 123], and said: "وَاخْشَوْا يَوْماً لا يَجْزِي والِدٌ عَنْ وَلَدِهِ وَلا مَوْلُودٌ هُوَ جازٍ عَنْ والِدِهِ شَيْئاً، إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ" [Surat Luqman: 33].

All of this is a denial of the false aspirations of the idolaters that they will be benefit from those who they are attached to without Allah, such as kinship, brother-in-law, marriage or companionship on the Day of Resurrection, or prevent Allah's punishment upon them. This is the origin of the misguidance of the sons of Adam and their polytheism, the unforgivable sin by Allah, which Allah sent all his messengers, and sent down all his books, invalidated, and fight its allies and hostility). (Ibn al kayyim al-jawzi , i1991:p144)



4.2.: The two wives whom Allah mentioned as an example of faithful ones.

Allah gave us another example for the believers of two other women which shows the reverse of the previous saying that they do not harm them being related to unbelievers if they need them, and the Almighty said: "وَضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا امْرَأَتَ فِرْعَوْنَ إِذْ قَالَتْ رَبِّ ابْنِ لِي عِنْدَكَ بَيْتًا فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَنَجِّنِي مِنْ فِرْعَوْنَ وَعَمَلِهِ وَنَجِّنِي مِنَ الْقَوْم الظَّالِمِينَ(11) وَمَرْيَمَ ابْنَتَ عِمْرَانَ الَّتِي أَحْصَنَتْ فَرْجَهَا فَنَفَخْنَا فِيهِ مِنْ رُوحِنَا وَصَدَّقَتْ بِكَلِمَاتِ رَبِّهَا وَكُتُبِهِ وَكَانَتْ مِنَ الْقَانِتِينَ(12) "Allah says:" "ضرب الله مثلاً للمؤمنين Al-Samarqandi said in his interpretation :( Allah shows a resemblance and a feature to the believers who believe. Pharaoh’s wife was valid and good and not affected by infidel Pharaoh so whoever is obedient to Allah there is nothing harmed him by the evil of others. says: This impelling the believers to have patience in the distress, i.e., do not be weaker than the woman of Pharaoh she kept being patience when she suffered from the severity and she was patient despite all the harm of Pharaoh upon her.

Wahba al-Zuhaili said in his explanation: Allah gave an example for those who believed in their similarity in not being influenced by the environment of disbelief and the giants of the disbelievers, and that their connection with disbelievers did not harm them as in the case of Asia Pharaoh’ woman, and her name is Asia the daughter of Hazm, the aunt of Moses and she believed in him. So Pharaoh tortured her severely to stop her from believing. (al-Zuhaili', 1418: p.323)

The Almighty said: "إِذْ قالَتْ رَبِّ ابْنِ لِي عِنْدَكَ بَيْتاً فِي الْجَنَّةِ" when Pharaoh knew that she believed in the God of Moses, he asked her to return, and she refused to return from her faith. As a result, he put four cleats in her hands and legs, and tied her and put a stone on her breast. Asia saw her home in Paradise, and she forgot all the torment she has suffered from and laughed, they said at that time: she is crazy laughing, while she was tormented by her husband). (Samarqandi, p. 471)The researcher believes that this demonstrates is a strong belief and ratification of the resurrection despite the torment she suffered by him, as Qatada narrated, from Anas, from the Prophet -peace be upon him- he said: {Its sufficient for you four women of the world Mary girl Imran, Khadija girl Khuwaylid, Fatima girl Mohammed -peace be upon him-, and Asia the woman of Pharaoh. (Ahm ( ibn Hanbal , 1990: p 3010. Hadith No. 12586, Al-Hakem , p.171. Hadith No. 4745, Al-Shibani, p.755. Hadith No. 1325).

The interpreters differed in the way that Pharaoh's wife Asiya tormented.

Al-Tha'labi said in his explanation: “When Moses overcame the witches, the woman of Pharaoh believed, and when she showed her Islam and stick by it four cleats put in her hands and legs and threw her in the sun. He ordered to put a great rock on her breast. When she saw her palace in heaven which made from Dora, and Allah grabbed her spirit, and the rock was thrown on a dead body whit no spirit, So she didn’t feel the pain she suffered caused from the torment of Pharaoh (al-Thalabi , 2002: p.351).

It was said: She was tortured in the sun and the angels have protected her from sunlight. (Zamakhshari , 1407: p571).Qatada said: Pharaoh was the worst one on the land and disbeliever, It doesn’t harm his wife the infidelity of her husband when she Obeyed her Lord, to know that Allah Almighty rule and just, does not punish anyone except for his guilt. ( Al-Zahili , 1418: p.323).

Ibn Jarir said: Pharaoh's woman was tormented in the sun when he left her, the angels came to protect her from the sunlight using their wings, and she saw her house in paradise. (Tabari , 2000: p. 500).The verse is evidence of the sincere faith of Pharaoh's woman in Allah and the resurrection day, heaven, and hell. Also, good work is the only way to Paradise, and bad work leads to inter hell. It is another proof that seeking refuge in God from the wicked is a persevere of righteousness.

Allah says: "نجني من فرعون وعمله".

The interpreters differed in the meaning of the work in the previous verse:

1. A collective of interpreters said: it means to save me from Pharaoh's injustice and punishment and torture of me. (Ibn Attiyah, 1983: p. 335).

2 .Al-Samarqandi said: save me from the torment and injustice of Pharaoh. (Samarqandi , p. 471).

3 .It was: saved me from the tyranny of Pharaoh and torture and his heinous. (Al- Zuhaili, 1418: p.323).

4 .It was: from his malicious soul and bad work. (Al-Baidawe,1418: p. 226).

5. It was: from his disbelief. ( Al-Sam'ani, 1997: p.479).

The researcher believes that the intended meaning of the word “work” in the previous verse: is the injustice and torture, it is the closest to the right connotation because it is proportional to the context of the meaning and significance of the text. And the next verse confirms that and proportionate to the Qur’anic text. Allah said: "ونجني من القوم الظالمين هم أقباط مصر الوثنيون التابعون لفرعون في الظلم ". (Ibn Hayyan ,1420 : p. 216).

The part " ونجني من القوم الظالمين" means: from the people of Pharaoh and their calibration and gloating. (Samarqandi, : p.471).It was said: "من القوم الظالمين" means: strong people in ancient times to put their actions in other places where they were ordered as the act of taking the dark way in general. (Beka’ai , p.211).

Al-Qurtubi said: It was said that the wife of Pharaoh said ask Allah "save me from Pharaoh", Allah saved her and pleased her with the best salvation and has lifted her to Paradise, she is eating and drinking there. (Al-Qurtubi , 1964 :p.203). It was also said that Allah created the Garden of Eden without any other means and planted the blessed tree by his hand, so when pharaoh's wife said the word " عِنْدَكَ بَيْتاً فِي الْجَنَّةِ ", i.e. close to your mercy, as the circumstance is an adverb of the conscience of the speaker because Allah is everywhere with no limited place. Or built for me a house in the highest degree with the closest people to you, so near is adverbial for the verb, in paradise is an adjective of a house and in The Eye Of Meanings near means from you without merit by me but a generous from you. It was said: when she said that: the veil lifted until she saw her house in paradise from the white Dorra and snatched her soul when some people were asked where in the Qur'an like their saying neighbor s before the house said built for me a house in paradise so you have it next door and a house in paradise is the home). (Ismail Hakki al-Khaloti,p.69).The researcher believes that one of the reasons for surviving in times of adversity is to pray to Allah because that is Sunna of the Prophets and good Believers. When Allah loved a worshiper, he afflicts him to test his patience, and if he succeeded in testing, he will be survived and his anguish will be released. The proof of that is that Allah Almighty has responded to the Duaa of Asia, the daughter of Mozahem. Pharaoh's wife, because she is depending on Allah and asked protection and help from Allah Almighty.

It is stated in al-Maraghi's interpretation about the four women who mentioned in the Holy Qur’an when the proverb of Noah's woman and the woman of Lot, they were in the house of prophecy, and their hearts were not turned to faith and Islam. Also, if the essence of the soul is pure and clean from disbelief and hypocrisy, it doesn’t matter if they live near infidels or not because they didn't affect by infidels abusing and atheism. As an example of that the parable of woman pharaoh, whom Pharaoh and his people have forced her to embrace the paganism that they believe in and believe his divinity. But she refused and struggled for the sake of Allah a real jihad until she died. Her soul went to Allah safe and reassured by the light of faith in her heart, and this is proof that she was a real believer believed in the Resurrection. One of Allah's legislation is not to punish the one because of the sin of others, only the guilty. Every soul has gained what it did. As well as Mary, the daughter of Imran, who protect herself so Allah gave her the honor and dignity, deliver Isa the Prophet Of Allah, and believed in all his laws and books, and she was one of the sincere worshipers. ( Maraghi , 1946: p.129).Almighty saying: " وَمَرْيَمَ ابْنَتَ عِمْرَانَ الَّتِي أَحْصَنَتْ فَرْجَهَا فَنَفَخْنَا فِيهِ مِنْ رُوحِنَا وَصَدَّقَتْ بِكَلِمَاتِ رَبِّهَا وَكُتُبِهِ وَكَانَتْ مِنَ الْقَانِتِينَ(12) "

Allah set an example and a model for the pure and chaste woman Maryam, the daughter of Imran, the mother of the prophet Isa (peace be upon him), and Allah did not mention a name of any woman in the Qur’an except her, to emphasis that she is a worshiper to Allah to ignore all the Christian’s beliefs about Issa as a son of God. ( Ibn Ashur, 1984: p.378). He said, "الَّتِي أَحْصَنَتْ فَرْجَهَا. guard her chastity, she prevents any man to touch her and keep her virginity away from anything, because she is the chaste, fortitude and exalted from the defect, O Glory of Allah, this is the Qur'an's description about Mariam the Pure Virgin. ( Ibn Ashur, 1984: p.378).

People differed about the meaning of the vulva that was fortified by Mariam, and the majority of interpreters said: It is the pocket of the shield that was upon her, and she was immune, and that Gabriel, peace be upon him: breathe into him of His Spirit through the pocket of the shield, and some of the interpreters said: It is the vulva organ, so the word fortified: if the vulva organ is real able, and the fortification: means it is preserved, and in it is used, and if we estimate the pocket of the shield, the word is immune to it came from the term of fortified, and from where it became a path for her son . (Ibn Attia's, 1422: p.335). . The interpretation also states that the vulva means her dress because the Arabs say to the chaste: He is pure of the garment, and he is a good abstinent, she wants to be chaste (A-Zajaj, 1988: p.195).Allah told about her by guard and for the reasons, which she took between herself and the people as a veil, so that people would not see her, and her sight would not fall on them, so that she could fortify her vagina. Allah said: " قُلْ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَغُضُّوا مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِمْ وَيَحْفَظُوا فُرُوجَهُم"[Surat Al-Nore:30] , and if they lowering their gaze, they will reach the preservation of the chaste. Allah said: " يَا مَرْيَمُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَاكِ وَطَهَّرَكِ وَاصْطَفَاك" [Sura Al-Imran:42] Allah purified her from obscenities and adultery, he added the reasons for the guard for Mariam and purification for himself, because the occurrence of both is in Allah's hand, in which indicates that every act of a worshiper is not without any reason and Allah - Almighty - has a role in made and managed it) . ( Matridi, 2005: p.99).

His saying: "فَنَفَخْنَا فِيهِ مِنْ رُوحِنَا". The interpreters differed in the interpretation of the saying. Al-Khazen said: (God blew it from his spirit, and the one who blows it is Jibril by the command of Allah, blowing in her vagina and in the pocket of the shield a spirit of Allah, Mariam is pregnant with Issa, and the addition in the words of Allah: from our spirit to legislate and honor and because the spirit arrived in Mariam without father). (Al-Khazen,1415 : p.317). And the breath is a metaphor of how fast the birth of Issa was. And the addition of "the Spirit" to the pronoun of -his Almighty- indicates the creation of Issa in his mum’s uterus without the known ways. the wanted meaning from the spirit is the angel who gave the life to the embryos. The first one is divisive, and the second is initially. (Ibn Ashur, 1984:p.378). Al-Zuhili said: "فَنَفَخْنَا فِيهِ" means we blow in it, i.e. in the vulva, and he said from our soul: the spirit we created without a father. (Matridi, 2005: p.99). Al-Matridi said that Allah said, " فَنَفَخْنَا فِيهِ مِنْ رُوحِنَا" That means: we have created in it what lives in it the shapes and bodies. He said: "In " means Issa, he said in [Surat Al-Naba':91] " فَنَفَخْنَا فِيهَا " i.e., in Issa spirit- peace be upon him- and the soul is a feminine tone. Then the spirit, if it the spirit created in it, it spreads in the body like the wind if it breathed into something that spreads or the likeness of blowing to the speed of its entry into it, and Allah knows

Ibn Atiyah said: Allah said: “فَنَفَخْنَا “is: Jibril's act was the truth, the blowing was the act of Allah, it is his creation and his invention of the boy in her belly. It is like blowing gently and smoothly on something. Al-Razi said: the meaning of the verse, i.e. in Isa or in the spirit of Isa, from our spirit, means we created him without mediation at all and we got to her vagina the wind coming out from Jibril’s spirit when he blew in the pocket of the shield, and it reached the womb, and she became pregnant with Issa. (Mohammed bin Omar, 1417: p.543)..

Ibn Atiyah said: It is our spirit to add the creature to the creator and owned him to the owner, as you say: The house of Allah and she-camel of Allah, as well as the spirit, the whole sex is the spirit of Allah. (Ibn Attia's,1422: p.335) Almighty said: "(12)صَدَّقَتْ بِكَلِمَاتِ رَبِّهَا وَكُتُبِهِ ". The interpreters differed in the meaning of the words in the verse: She believed in Allah's utterance, i.e., in his own Holy books or the revelation to his prophets. (Ibn Ajiba, p.89. Al-Baidawy ,1418: p.227). It was said: She believed in the laws of Allah and his books, and the revelation to his prophets. ( Al-Maraghy ,1946: p.169).

Al-Khazen said: And Mariam believed in the words of Allah, and Jibril said to her, "إِنَّما أَنَا رَسُولُ رَبِّكِ لِأَهَبَ لَكِ غُلاماً زَكِيًّاً" ( Al-Khazen, 1415: p.317).) Ibn Ashour said in his interpretation: What is meant by the utterance of Allah? are the words that Allah has said to her by the revelation? (Ibn Ashour,1984: p.378).

It was said: She believed in Issa -peace be upon him- and it is said that she believed in the good omen that Jibril delivered to her. (Al-Samarqandi, p.471).

Al-Razi said: The words canons proceeded to her without saying, as if the meaning believed in the legislations and worked by them and believed in the books, so they did not lie and the legislations were called the words as mentioned in the verse,

Allah -The Almighty- said: "وإذ ابتلى إبراهيم ربه بكلمات" [Surat Al-Bakara: 124] ( Al- Razi , 1420: p.574)

Allah -The Almighty- said: "وإذ ابتلى إبراهيم ربه بكلمات" [Surat Al-Bakara: 124 (72) It was said: What is meant by the words of Allah is the Books the revelation upon Idris and other prophets. (Alnasfi , 1998:p.508)

Saying: “And his books.” The interpreters differed in the meaning of the books mentioned in the verse

Ibn Ashour said: his books may be meant the «Bible» which was brought by her son, Isa, if not written in the time of Jesus was written by the Disciples of Christ in the life of Mary, and maybe intended for his books, Allah wanted Mary to bring Jesus to life and the ability to be pregnant without touching a man It was from the meaning of"وَكَانَ كِتَابًا مَفْعُولًا " (Ibn Ashour, 1984 :p.378). It was said:" وكُتُبِهِ " means: Belief in the Book of Allah Abu Amr and Asim read in the recite of Hafs and The books mean: Books that were the revelation of the prophets, and the others say his book means: the Bible . ( Al-Samarqandi, p.471). It was said: His books mean The four books, or all the speech of Allah to His angels and what he wrote in the Preserved Tablet or the Books of the Prophets, and read: the word of Allah and his book, means Issa and his book, which is the Bible. ( Razi, 1420: p.574. Al-baidawy 1418: p.227)

Almighty saying: "وَكَانَتْ مِنَ الْقَانِتِينَ" The meaning of Qunoot in the verse, ie: One of those who persevere in obedience, and reminders of predominance, and notice that her obedience in the same level of the obedience of men, even belonging to them, She is from the descendants of Harun, Musa’s brother -Peace be upon them- said Ata ibn Rabah: (وَكَانَتْ مِنَ الْقَانِتِينَ) any: worshipers between Sunset and Isha’ prayers . (Abu Hafs Sirajuddin Hanbali p. 220).

Al-Zamakhshari said: If it said: Why was it said (مِنَ الْقَانِتِينَ) to recall? It is said: "Qunoot" adjective includes the devoutly obedient from both genders, the majority of males on females. It may be due to her family, they were devoutly obedient to Allah, and "Qunoot" means obedience. (78) ( Al- Zamakhshari, 1407: p.574. Ibn Jizi, 1416: p.393). And it was said: She was one of the sincere worshipers for Allah and obedient to him. (Al-Maragy,1946: p.169). Al-Sa’di said in his interpretation: (وَكَانَتْ مِنَ الْقَانِتِينَ), i.e.: the devoutly obedient to Allah, who persist in obedience fear and reverence, and this description of the completion of work, she may Allah be pleased with her the believer, and the believer is the completion of the work and knowledge. ( Al-Saadi, 2000: p.874).. Al-Nasfi said: "وَكَانَتْ مِنَ القانتين ", and when the loyal worshiping was a characteristic that included all worshipers, the male over the female and the preposition ”of” for dividing, and it may be, from the beginning of the target that she was born as a loyal worshiper, because she is from the descendants of Harun and Musa ( peace be upon them), and Mariam, the daughter of Imran, and the dignity of the world and the hereafter she gained. The selected one from the women of the world, even though their people were infidels. In these two representations exposed the mothers of the believers with what they hated and warned them to do it, and a sign that they have the right to be faithful like these two believers and don’t depend on anyone if their husband is the Messenger of Allah ( peace be upon him). (Alnasfi , 1998: p.508)Ibn Ashour said: " "القانتين Are the worshipers, i.e. And it means she was one of the good people, i.e. she has her own way with goodness and honor. (Ibin Ashour, 1984: p378).And in Al-Saheeh it was said that the Prophet(Peace be upon him) said that: there is a lot of complete believer men, but the women side not just Asia Pharaoh’s wife and Mariam the daughter of Imran. And the priority of Aisha on the women, as the priority of porridge on the food. ( Al-Bukhaari, p.158 h. 3411).

But he preferred the porridge because it made from meat. It is a food that combines pleasure, ease of eating, lack of chewing and fast passage in the esophagus. So give her as an example to usher that she has the satisfaction from Allah upon her, given the good manners, the wise logic, eloquence of speech, And the soberness of opinion, the sobriety of the mind. and the love of husband, and it is enough that she lived and learned in the home of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) what other women did not learn, and she recounted what men did not recount of Hadiths. (Al-Maragy, 1964: p169).

In this way, the Qur'an mentioned three categories of women: the infidel woman who has a connection to the good man as the wives’ of Noah and Lot, and the good woman who has a connection with the infidel man as the wife of Pharaoh, and the single woman who has no connection with anyone like Mariam ( peace be upon her), the first does not benefit her and her relation and causes, and the second does not harm her the infidelity of her husband and her relation and causes and the third do not harm having any relation with anyone.

THE MAIN RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

First: The Results

1 - Allah Almighty gives a lot of explicit and non-explicit proverbs, in many ways and methods, symbolic, anecdotal, and natural, each type and section has a lot of goals.

2 - Proverbs mentioned in the Holy Qur’an to show the truth, The falsehood and denied it, and to make the way of guidance closer and clear, as well as to differentiate between obedience and sin, and the good and evil.

3 - Proverbs take into consideration many aspects depending on the side on which they present, the effect of proverbs is stronger than words upon human minds and souls

4 - The aim of giving the proverbs about the four women, is to indicate that the obedience makes the connection with Allah stronger, not the intercessions and means, and in this a warning for the mothers of the believers and intimidating them that it will not benefit them being close to the Prophet if they were guilty.

5 - Emphasizing that the insured contact with the infidel does not harm him if he is different in disbelief and work.

6 - Allah Almighty Stating that the believer who is patient on the harm, Allah will save him from the oppressing people and this is what happened with the wife of Pharaoh as well as Mariam the daughter of Imran.


Second: Recommendations

1 – Taking care more about the proverbs mentioned in the Holy Qur’an, and the purpose of each type and section of them.

2 - Getting benefit from the lessons, morals, and teachings which came in proverbs at all fields and sections.

3 - Educating the believers to adhere to the book of Allah Almighty, and follow the Sunna of the Prophet Muhammad- peace be upon him- and follow his approach.

4 - The need to continue research in the treasures of the Qur’an, which is an unlimited teaching source.

5 - The sincerity of faith and belief only in Allah and relating with the Book of Allah and the Sunna, the one who is a sincere worshiper for the religion of Allah will guide him to the good work.

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